China 2015: RESOURCES | The Valuation Process
Step 1: Calculating Financial Value
We start with the corporation. In some cases, a corporation owns only one brand. All Corporate Earnings come from that brand. In other cases, a corporation owns many brands. And we need to apportion the earnings of the corporation across a portfolio of brands.
To make sure we attribute the correct portion of Corporate Earnings to each brand, we analyze financial information from annual reports and other sources, such as Kantar Worldpanel and Kantar Retail. This analysis yields a metric we call the Attribution Rate.
We multiply Corporate Earnings by the Attribution Rate to arrive at Branded Earnings, the amount of Corporate Earnings attributed to a particular brand. If the Attribution Rate of a brand is 50 percent, for example, then half the Corporate Earnings are identified as coming from that brand.
What happened in the past or even what’s happening today is less important than the prospects for future earnings.
Predicting future earnings requires adding another component to our BrandZ formula. This component assesses future earnings prospects as a multiple of current earnings. We call this component the Brand Multiple. It’s similar to the calculation used by financial analysts to determine the market value of stocks (Example: 6X earnings or 12X earnings). Information supplied by Bloomberg data helps us calculate a Brand Multiple. We take the Branded Earnings and multiply that number by the Brand Multiple to arrive at what we call Financial Value.
Step 2: Calculating Brand Contribution
We now have the value of the branded business as a proportion of the total value of the corporation. But this branded business value is still not quite the core that we are after. To arrive at Brand Value, we need to peel away a few more layers, such as the rational factors that influence the value of the branded business, for example: price, convenience, availability and distribution.
Because a brand exists in the mind of the consumer, we have to assess the brand’s uniqueness and its ability to stand out from the crowd, generate desire and cultivate loyalty. We call this unique role played by brand, Brand Contribution.
Here’s what makes BrandZ so unique and important. BrandZ is the only brand valuation methodology that obtains this customer viewpoint by conducting worldwide on-going, in-depth quantitative consumer research, online and face-to-face, building up a global picture of brands on a category-by-category and country-by-country basis. Our research now covers over two million consumers and more than 10,000 different brands in over 30 countries.
Step 3: Calculating Brand Value
Now we take the Financial Value and multiply it by Brand Contribution, which is expressed as a percentage of Financial Value. The result is Brand Value. Brand Value is the dollar amount a brand contributes to the overall value of a corporation. Isolating and measuring this intangible asset reveals an additional source of shareholder value that otherwise would not exist.